Libya has had a fluid and fractured media landscape since the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011.

The existence between 2014 and 2021 of rival authorities in the west and east created political and media polarisation and enduring rivalry between key players.

As part of a new push for reconciliation under a unified interim government, parallel “state media” run by the two administrations are being merged.

Editorial stances shift, depending on the political and military situation.

The battle of narratives on social media and TV has fuelled disinformation. Foreign players whose interventions in Libya have increased are also involved in media messaging.

There is a diverse media environment, with a multitude of outlets and a variety of platforms. Satellite TV is a leading news medium. Stations’ social media accounts are key news sources. Some prominent outlets are based outside Libya.

Local and international journalists face threats and attacks. Despite infrastructure limitations, internet use is rising markedly year by year.

Facebook remains the preferred social media platform and is used for official statements, political discussion and popular mobilisation. There were 6.6 million internet users by December 2021, comprising 94% of the population (


  • Al-Shuruq – Tripoli-based weekly
  • Al-Wasat – Cairo-based weekly
  • Brnieq – Benghazi weekly
  • The Libyan Address – publishes in English and Arabic


  • 218 TV – private satellite station, based in Jordan. Also runs 218 News
  • Libya al-Ahrar TV – private satellite channel, now based in Turkey
  • Al-Salam TV – private, satellite station based in Turkey
  • Libya al-Hadath – private, linked to Gen Haftar’s family
  • Al-Rasmeya and Al-Wataniya – Tripoli-based, representing Government of National Unity (GNU)
  • Al-Wasat – private, via satellite, based in Cairo
  • Libya’s Channel – private, via satellite, based in Amman


  • Wataniya – state-run, based in Tripoli
  • Tripoli FM – private, Tripoli
  • Lebda FM – private, Tripoli
  • Libyana Hits – private, based in Benghazi
  • Al-Wasat – private, based in Egypt, on FM in Libyan cities

News agencies/internet

  • Libyan Arab News Agency (Lana) – the parallel east and west “state” news agencies, both named the Libyan Arab News Agency (Lana) or Wakalat al-Anba al-Libiyah (WAL), announced in 2021 they would merge
  • Arraed News Network – Tripoli-based, Islamist-affiliated
  • Ean Libya – London-based news site
  • Libyan Cloud News Agency – Tunis-based, European-backed
  • Al-Wasat – Cairo-based news site
  • Fassato News Agency – Rome-based news site
  • Libya Herald – English-language news
  • Afrigate News – news website
  • All Libyan Blogs – blog aggregator

Source : BBC

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